Historically, the Atlantic Forest covered the entire Brazilian coast. However, human occupation and habitat conversion has reduced its area to 7% of its original size. Currently, this biome is considered one of the most threatened in the world. This highly diverse forest is home to a large number of endemic species like the Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). In addition, the Atlantic forest hosts 383 of the 633 threatened species in Brazil. Because of habitat loss in the region, the jaguar faces the most critical situation in the long-term.
The Jaguar Conservation Fund/Instituto Onça-Pintada currently supports jaguar research in the Serra do Mar and Carlos Botelho State parks, both located in the State of São Paulo. The Serra do Mar park protects 315,000 hectares (778,378 acres) and holds the largest remaining block of Atlantic Forest in the country. However, wildlife poaching in the park has dramatically reduced the abundance of terrestrial mammals and as a result, has limited jaguar distribution and population abundance. The Carlos Botelho State Park, totaling 37,644 hectares (93,019 acres) and located southeast of São Paulo state, is part of a complex of state parks that protects several endangered species including the jaguar.